The aim of this study was to synthesise nanosilica fillers for use in the fabrication of experimental dental nanocomposites and to evaluate their properties, including surface and mechanical properties. Monodispersed, spherical silica nanoparticles were synthesised via a sol-gel process, and a size range of 10–20 nm was obtained. Surface treatment of the nanosilica was carried out with the silane coupling agent γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) to reduce agglomeration of nanosilica. Experimental dental nanocomposites with two different filler contents, 30 and 35 wt%, were fabricated and polymerised with a light curing unit for 40 s. The surface morphology, surface roughness, flexural strength and elastic modulus were evaluated and compared. A nanocomposite with 35% filler content showed higher filler compaction, lower surface roughness and higher elastic modulus than a nanocomposite filled with 30% filler. However, the nanocomposite filled with 30% filler content showed higher flexural strength. Based on the results obtained, the synthesised nanosilica is a promising material for the fabrication of dental nanocomposites for tooth-filling applications.