Process Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil Enhanced by Ionic Liquid + NaOH Catalyst and Microwave Heating System

To cite this article: Handayani, P. A., Abdullah & Hadiyanto. (2018). Process evaluation of biodiesel production from nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) oil enhanced by ionic liquid + NaOH catalyst and microwave heating system. J. Phys. Sci., 29(Supp. 2), 265–275,


Biodiesel production using conventional method usually involves a long processing time and produces low yield. In Indonesia, nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) plant is a highly potential raw material for biodiesel production with plantation areas of approximately 255.350 ha and produces about 20 tonne ha–1 seeds per year. The oil in the seed is about 50%–73%, and mainly consists of oleic and linoleic acid. The crude nyamplung oil has a free fatty acid of approximately 12.9%. Based on literature, the microwave has been intensively applied to reduce the processing time while ionic liquid has also been used as an acceleration agent in the transesterification reaction during biodiesel production. In the present study, biodiesel was produced from nyamplung oil using an ionic liquid (BMIMHSO4) + NaOH as a catalyst and assisted by microwave heating system. The effect of transesterification reaction temperature (i.e., range of 50°C–80°C); molar ratio of methanol to oil (range of 6–12 mole/mole); reaction time (range of 3–9 min); and microwave power (range of 100–400 W) were studied. Catalyst concentration was fixed at BMIMHSO4(1):NaOH(1), i.e., 1%. Based on the results, the optimum condition was achieved at 70°C with yield of 94.04%, molar ratio of methanol to oil 9 mole/mole and reaction time 6 min, and microwave power at 200 W with yield of 93.83%.


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