The Effect of Carbonisation Heating Rates on the Properties of N-Doped Teak Sawdust Waste Activated Carbon


Biomass can be utilised in place of non-renewable raw resources like coal and petroleum residue in the production of activated carbon. Each biomass, however, requires different manufacturing process parameters to obtain the desired activated carbon characteristics due to their different chemical compositions. This study aims to examine the effects of carbonisation heating rates (8°C/min, 10°C/min and 12°C/min) on the characteristics of teak sawdust-derived activated carbon. Furthermore, finding the proper carbonisation heating rate to provide the optimum characteristics is the originality of this study. Activation was carried out at a temperature of 600°C, and simultaneously, 200 mL/min of nitrogen was doped. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adsorption isotherm tests were performed as part of the characterisation. The results revealed that activated carbon carbonised at a rate of 10°C/min produced the best properties. This activated carbon contained 10.8% moisture, 15.26% volatile, 1.73% ash and 72.43% fixed carbon. The majority of the structure is mesopore, with an average pore diameter of 2.43 nm, a pore volume of 0.369 cm3/g and a specific surface area of 409.698 m2/g. Its ability to adsorb nitrogen was 239.102 cm3/g. The successful production of activated carbon from biomass waste derived from teak sawdust offers hope for untapped sawdust waste and has the potential to be used in a number of applications that need adsorption mechanisms.